Author Topic: Changing words in a quotation  (Read 1850 times)

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #15 on: December 18, 2016, 04:10:34 PM »
Those terms do not seem like they need quotes to me. Certainly not allomorph. That's standard. Maybe the others if you think they are particularly nonstandard.
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #16 on: December 18, 2016, 04:21:00 PM »
I see. I'm asking because, as I said, I was taught that I should use single quotation marks for terms.
I gather that for general, standard terms, it is not necessary to use them?

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #17 on: December 18, 2016, 04:27:39 PM »
Whatever is expected by your teacher, advisor, or publisher is of course more important than advice I can give you (and it will vary some for different styles).

But no, in general you do not need quotes around standard ones. Sometimes for nonstandard.

One distinction is whether you are using (quotes less likely) or discussing the terms but there are still no absolute rules there.
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #18 on: December 18, 2016, 04:30:36 PM »
OK thank you very much.

Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #19 on: December 19, 2016, 01:56:51 AM »
Actually I would like to ask you one more question.
I have read articles about when to use inverted commas on the Internet, and they say that they are used "When you introduce a new, unfamiliar or technical word"

Though standard, aren't 'linking element', 'interfix' or 'intermorph' technical  words?

I have noted that linguists vary in their use of technical terms.

For example, Bauer in one book writes, for example, "The element is termed as a 'linking element' ", and in other books the term is used without quotation marks.

As you said, I do not need quotes around standard terms, but I can use them if I want to?
« Last Edit: December 19, 2016, 01:58:33 AM by Natalia »

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #20 on: December 19, 2016, 02:28:31 AM »
Yes, it's your choice. My suggestion would be:
1. Read a lot in your field and then copy whatever norms you find. (Of course different authors will vary some.)
2. Be consistent (at least within each paper).*
3. Check with your teacher/advisor/editor/publisher as needed.

[*I mean be consistent with different terms. You can introduce with quotes once and then use the term if you want.]

Note that the quote from Bauer is actually discussing (rather than using) the term, maybe even evaluating its validity.

And it's not uncommon for an author to introduce a term with a definition and then state something like "Different researchers have used a lot of terms for this phenomenon, such as 'a', 'b' and 'c'. I will use 'a' in this paper."
« Last Edit: December 19, 2016, 02:31:22 AM by djr33 »
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #21 on: December 19, 2016, 03:36:16 AM »
"[*I mean be consistent with different terms. You can introduce with quotes once and then use the term if you want.]"

I am not sure whether I understand your point here. Could you please clarify this?

Also, I forgot to ask you about the point about 'standard' vs. 'non-standard' terms.
By a 'standard' term you mean a word/phrase that is widely accepted in a given field?
By a 'non-standard' term you mean one that is, for example, made up by an author?
« Last Edit: December 19, 2016, 04:41:46 AM by Natalia »

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #22 on: December 19, 2016, 11:15:21 AM »
Quote
"[*I mean be consistent with different terms. You can introduce with quotes once and then use the term if you want.]"

I am not sure whether I understand your point here. Could you please clarify this?
I just meant that you should be consistent with different terms (see my note above), but that once you've introduced a term using quotes (if you do) then you don't always need to use quotes after that every time you use it later, if you start accepting it after you introduce it.

Quote
Also, I forgot to ask you about the point about 'standard' vs. 'non-standard' terms.
By a 'standard' term you mean a word/phrase that is widely accepted in a given field?
By a 'non-standard' term you mean one that is, for example, made up by an author?
That's part of it. Also how well-known the term is, and whether there are competing terms.
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #23 on: December 19, 2016, 01:28:22 PM »
Thank you. Now I understand.

i would like to ask you just one last question.

I would like to ask you just one more question.

Let's say that an author discusses some linguistic issue in their book, and as an example provides a sentence in which a specific compound word is used. This word is italicised.

And now, if I want to cite this sentence in my work, can I, for example, write the word in bold instead of using italics?
Can I make such small stylistic changes?

Let me give you another example.

I will give you another example.
The linguist Rochelle Lieber in her book Introducing Morphology discusses types of compound words according to their syntactic category. Here are some examples:

Compound elements:      Compound category:       Examples:
N + N                           N                                 dog bed, file cabinet
N + A                           A                                 sky blue, stone cold

If I want to use this table in my work, can I, for example, write "Noun", "Adjective", etc. instead of "N", "A", as in:

Compound elements:      Compound category:        Examples:
N + N                           Noun                             dog bed, file cabinet
N + A                           Adjective                       sky blue, stone cold

« Last Edit: December 19, 2016, 02:50:14 PM by Natalia »

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #24 on: December 19, 2016, 04:59:57 PM »
Quote
Let's say that an author discusses some linguistic issue in their book, and as an example provides a sentence in which a specific compound word is used. This word is italicised.

And now, if I want to cite this sentence in my work, can I, for example, write the word in bold instead of using italics?
Can I make such small stylistic changes?
You should try to avoid making any content-related changes. If you consistently use italics for emphasis, and another author consistently uses bold, then that isn't really a change in content at all. A more common example is older papers that had underlining for emphasis because typewriters didn't have italics easily available. It's no problem to update that to italics if you wish. So if you are reasonably confident that their purpose is just general emphasis, then I don't really see a problem with this. However, there's no problem quoting exactly, either. (A similar question can arise related to phonetic examples with slightly different symbols. Do you use the exact formatting of the original source, or do you update it to modern IPA? Most of the time authors will leave the original because it's time-consuming and sometimes difficult/unclear to update the symbols, but if you can do it easily there's nothing wrong with it. In these cases, though, often a footnote is added to explain what you're doing.)

Quote
Can I make such small stylistic changes?
No. You cannot make "changes" in a direct quotation. Your options are:
1. Keep the same formatting, even if that means updating it to your formatting-- change the font, change italics to bold, etc., as long as it is entirely consistent with the content of the original. In other words, if they are not changes, then you don't need to ask if you can make the changes. If you're not sure, it's best to not change things.
2. Indicate your changes (square brackets in the quotation, footnote explaining a systematic change, etc.).
3. Do not use direct quotations at all. Paraphrase and summarize, and then there's no problem changing formatting. Just keep the citations.
4. Use the original exactly. Why not? It's not like you're going to have hundreds of quotations all with different formatting that will confuse the reader.

Quote
The linguist Rochelle Lieber in her book Introducing Morphology discusses types of compound words according to their syntactic category. Here are some examples:
I'd write that like this:
Lieber (2009:PAGE) discusses types of compound words according to their syntactic category as follows:

Using author-date citations is much better than describing the work you're citing in the text (or the author's qualifications). That's what the bibliography is for, and this is a common mistake made by students who start doing research. The reader doesn't care who the person you're citing is, or what the title of the book is. (Or if they do care, they can read the bibliography.) If you're citing it, it should be reliable, but beyond that you don't need to explain it. Unless there's a reason to discuss the source, like saying "Noam Chomsky's syntactic theory was first introduced in his book...." -- beyond that, just cite author-year.

Quote
If I want to use this table in my work, can I, for example, write "Noun", "Adjective", etc. instead of "N", "A", as in:
Yes. This is not a direct quotation, so you can do what you want, as long as you attribute it to the original author (cite it, usually with a page number unless your style skips all page numbers) and you do not change the meaning of the content significantly. Your particular example is just fine, a very normal way of doing that. You can also switch the columns and rows, etc., if that would help, as long as it doesn't change the meaning. And if you DO want to change the meaning, you can even do that too-- just say "based on X (YYYY:pp)" or "expanded from...." etc.
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #25 on: December 20, 2016, 01:32:00 AM »
Thank you! That is what I was looking for.

While on the topic, please tell me: Is it optional to insert a year by an author if you mention them a second time?  For example:

"According to Marchand (1960: 15), these are adjectival compounds with present or past participle as the final constituent, which generally carry two stresses, e.g. easy-going, high-born, man-made. Based on these cases, Marchand (1960) identifies..."

Actually, I always write "Author (YEAR)", but in some books the year is often omitted.

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #26 on: December 20, 2016, 04:29:25 AM »
I usually include the year also, but it is ok to omit it if:
1. It is in the same paragraph, or at least the same section; and
2. There is no possible ambiguity (no other papers by the author that you are citing from different years); and
3. You are referring to the work generally rather than a specific page (or the same pages you already mentioned).

These factors interact: so if it's in the same sentence or paragraph and somewhere else in the paper you cite another work by the same author, then it's probably still clear. If the ideas are so general that they really describe the author rather than a particular work/year, then you might even refer to them by name ("such as in Chomsky's theories") without even including a year, maybe in a later chapter of your dissertation/book, if you introduced some references earlier. The distinction is based on how specific you need to be, and how confusing it might be to the author. If in doubt, keep the year. If it seems silly, or if you're repeating it a lot for the same work (three paragraphs citing the same paper eight times?), you can start omitting it some.

Note that different citation styles have different rules about how you would cite, for example, new pages in the same work-- sometimes like (p.X) and other times repeating the author, etc. But all that really matters is clarity.
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #27 on: December 20, 2016, 05:19:41 AM »
Thank you for your clarification.

I also noted that authors use the term 'ibid.' as a reference for a source that has already been cited. For example,
The first sentence: "Bauer (1983) states that..."
The third sentence: "Some examples include x, y, z (ibid.: 56)"

Sometimes, authors do not mention a linguists's name in the brackets if there is no ambiquity as for the source. For example,
The first sentence: "Bauer (1983) states that..."
The third sentence: "Some examples include x, y, z (1983: 56)"

« Last Edit: December 20, 2016, 05:22:37 AM by Natalia »

Online Daniel

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #28 on: December 20, 2016, 06:23:58 AM »
Yes, those are all options. "ibid." [=ibidem 'in the same place'] is the same as various other Latin abbreviations used in citations like cf., inter alia (i.a.), pace, passim, so use it if you're also using those (or if a style requires it). Aside from etc. (which oddly enough can sometimes be too informal for an academic paper), these are relatively formal and don't fit well with a more casually written (but still academic) paper. They're mostly used in older writing or by more formal (or older) writers, and in subject matter (like Latin linguistics, or historical linguistics, etc.) where readers might be more familiar with Latin and/or older formal abbreviations like this. So you'll see the more in some journals than others. There's no reason not to use them. I personally use "cf." and "inter alia" sometimes, but the others rarely if at all.
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Offline Natalia

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Re: Changing words in a quotation
« Reply #29 on: December 21, 2016, 01:25:21 PM »
Thank you for your comment. I will remember that.