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91
Morphosyntax / A question about syntax
« Last post by Muikkunen on August 26, 2018, 09:14:27 AM »
Recently I participated in a summer school and I took intro to syntax. In one of my homeworks, I had to draw a tree for "The fact that he is tall bothers him". I've done it. There were no corrections for this sentence, so I assumed it to be correct and didn't pay much attention to it anymore. However, after I looked at it today, it seemed to be wrong to me, so I redrew it in a different way, which I believe to be correct, but wanted to clarify here to be sure.

(I've drawn full trees, but I omit here the parts which I'm sure are correct).

This is the first tree (drawn at the summer school):


This is the second one (drawn today):


Am I right that the second tree is the correct one?
92
Language-specific analysis / Re: Hungarian and Slovak language border
« Last post by Daniel on August 25, 2018, 10:48:21 AM »
I have little to add to panini's excellent discussion above, except to also point out that bilingualism can be stable and maintained in certain situations. This sounds like one of them. There actually are bilingual or even trilingual(+) villages in the world where it's simply the norm that people shift between languages for daily communication. In the right circumstances, the result may be stability rather than eventually shifting to just one language for the whole village, or creating some sort of mixed variety. I know I've seen examples like this from reading about different communities in passing, but I can't list them at the moment (I think there are some cases like this in India and Australia?). If you're interested in the topic, then that might be one way to indirectly research the topic.
93
Language-specific analysis / Re: Hungarian and Slovak language border
« Last post by Okram123xF on August 25, 2018, 09:42:51 AM »
I have to thank you for the detailed answer. I had a feeling that this question was particularly difficult,mainly because of the lack of sources and studies on this subject. Even though my knowledge on the subject is non-existent and the question arose purely out of curiosity,I gained a better perspective on it. As you said,the social pressures and the relationships between the speakers themselves must be the key to all of this. I wish there was a study on this. But again,thank you for taking the time to answer this curiosity of mine!
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Language-specific analysis / Re: Hungarian and Slovak language border
« Last post by panini on August 25, 2018, 09:05:27 AM »
Pidgins don't actually arise that way, instead, they depend on repeated but intermittent short-term contact between two groups. For instance, Chinook Jargon arose from casual trade contact between various tribes of the Northwest, where there wasn't enough long-term contact for one side to learn the other's language.

It is expected that there could be substantial influence between Hungarian and Slovak, so that a Hungarianized dialect of Slovak could develop. Countering this, though, are normative pressures to conform to the standard language. In fact, the situation there is so complex that I question the possibility of getting an accurate answer. There are legal and social pressures for Hungarians in Slovakia to Slovakify, and countervailing social pressures to Hungarify. (And vice versa in Hungary, though to a lesser extent as I understand, since there are many fewer Slovaks in Hungary and they are more dispersed). The only reliable research method would be to surreptitiously record conversations between known individuals, and observe the behavior of pure Hungarian-on-Hungarian interactions, compared to Hungarian-on-Slovak interactions. (Fluent bilingual people switch languages quickly when a monolingual or marginally bilingual person joins – may to include the person, maybe to exclude them).

The hypothesis that one would want to test is that Hungarians in Slovakia all speak "regular Hungarian", but may increase Slovak features when a Slovak speaker is added to the conversation. There are very many outcomes possible from this grand experiment. The problem is that there is a lot of personal knowledge stuff that has to be controlled for, such as whether Sally hates Hungarians or not, whether Sally is hated by the Hungarians, how fluent Sally is in Hungarian, etc.

If one were a linguist growing up in the Hungaro-Slovak region, one might specific properties of the local Hungarian that can be attributed to Slovak influence (or the other way), and then perhaps devise a very subtle method for measuring that feature. The other problem is, though, that there is no such thing as "regular Hungarian", so one would need to compare a suspected feature with what is found in relevant dialects in Hungary. Northern dialects of Hungarian seem to be quite understudied.

It would be really interesting to know all of this, I just don't see any way that the experiment could actually be conducted.

95
Language-specific analysis / Hungarian and Slovak language border
« Last post by Okram123xF on August 25, 2018, 06:58:32 AM »
I was watching a documentary on the hungarian population in Slovakia. At one point in the documentary,they interviewed a lady from the village of Ipeľské Predmostie. When they asked her a question about the relationship between hungarians and slovaks,she answered by saying that they're absolutely friendly and the hungarians and slovaks living there speak both languages. This got me thinking:is there a sort of pidgin,formed by the mix of the slovak and hungarian languages?How do these different ethnic groups communicate with one another in daily life?And also,if anyone knows about influences of the hungarian language in the slovak speech near the border,a clarification would be highly appreciated. Thanks!
96
Linguist's Lounge / The Voiceless Voice
« Last post by Nume on August 24, 2018, 07:50:47 PM »
I've been studying language development so I was beyond excited when I came across an upcoming book, The Voiceless Voice, written by a language development student, Alexandra Casavant. She's specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of language disorders, and these themes are covered throughout this collection of short stories. They're fictional stories that are meant to help empower those who have yet to find their voice. At the same time, they're also supposed to help instruct others to understand the struggles of those who are struggling to find their voice.
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Historical Linguistics / Re: Nicknames in Various Historical Cultures
« Last post by Nume on August 24, 2018, 07:42:28 PM »
OED did an article about the development of names throughout English history, including a section about pet forms of personal names.

The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming might be a useful resource for you as well.
98
Semantics and Pragmatics / Re: Help me pick the right words
« Last post by Nume on August 24, 2018, 07:23:16 PM »
The middle ground for common and rare would probably be uncommon. I've seen that in games before. The middle ground between old and modern is a little bit trickier. Perhaps rather than old, you could call them relics and then the middle ground one could be antiques?
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Linguist's Lounge / Re: WHATS A WORD FOR THIS SITUATION??
« Last post by Nume on August 24, 2018, 07:16:16 PM »
There have already been some great answers here, but what about "she condemned him to the bedroom"? Or maybe "she emigrated him to the bedroom"?
100
Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Keyboard Layout - Click Letters
« Last post by panini on August 24, 2018, 08:42:02 AM »
An alternative, which I use, is a character-composition utility like Allchars (free) or Accent Composer (cheap). These work on the principle of invoking the program by tapping a special key (assignable, such as f12 or right-ctrl) then two letters, so for example ŋ can be assigned to 'ng'. There being about 8464 possible entries, you can devise personal "meanings" to letters, for example ɹ='rr', ɯ='mr', ɟ='fr' (for rotated letters).

There are so many fancy characters that there isn't a single keyboard that would include all letters, and the problem that I found with keyboard approaches is that I often need for example t, T, θ, ŧ, ʈ, but I also want access to e.g. ctrl-alt-t to call up a frequent table-creating macro in Word.
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