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91
Linguistics Links / IPA: consonants (6:30 min.); Ə (4:35 min.)
« Last post by waive15 on March 29, 2021, 01:54:51 AM »

IPA: consonants

The Language Sounds That Could Exist, But Don't

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9uZam0ubq-Y


===


IPA: [Ə]

[Ə]: The Most Common Vowel in English

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qu4zyRqILYM

92
Linguist's Lounge / Re: (The) Three trifles in/of/about Russian
« Last post by Rock100 on March 27, 2021, 10:08:46 AM »
How come you come up with such tricky things?

> пить залпом
> /pit' zalpom/
>
> пить - to drink /a verb/
It is pretty good so far.

> залп - salvo, volley /a noun/
It is still good if we are talking about the etymology of the пить залпом. But we are on thin ice already.

> залпом - salvo, volley /in Instrumental case/
Nope. This is the adverb. And there is no an instrumental case unless you emphasize we are still talking about etymology nuances. I do not think Russians are even aware about salvos or volleys in пить залпом. They need to be asked to explain the origin of the idiom directly to begin to start thinking like you.
A correct instrumental case example will be “they were killed with the third salvo” – их убило третьим залпом – if you are interested.
93
Linguist's Lounge / Re: (The) Three trifles in/of/about Russian
« Last post by waive15 on March 26, 2021, 03:48:28 AM »
Instrumental case

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_case



-   the 1st  -  the 2nd (Non_Genitive Connection/Non_Genitive_is'') /the 2nd is the Instrument/

-   the 1st  -  the 2nd (Non_Genitive Connection/Non_Genitive_is'') /the 2nd is the Image/

-   the 1st  -  the 2nd (Non_Genitive Connection/Non_Genitive_is'') /the 2nd is Time, Place, .../
                                  /the 1st and the 2nd are just Companions/

-  "the 1st" - "the 2nd" (Equivalency (Connection)) /"the 1st" and "the 2nd" are Equivalent/

-   ... (?)

-   in some instances  the 1st is (probably could be) left out
94
Linguist's Lounge / Re: (The) Three trifles in/of/about Russian
« Last post by waive15 on March 21, 2021, 08:01:17 AM »
John worked (as) (a) taxi driver.


John          is the Original (the First, "in front of the mirror") /Nominative case/

and

taxi driver  is the Image   (the Second, "in the mirror")          /Instrumental case/

are

parts of a Connection (the 1st - the 2nd (Non_Genitive Connection/Non_Genitive_is''))



===



Verb/Connection (as a Thing) - the Original (the First, "in front of the mirror")    /Nominative case/

and

something                            - the Image   (the Second, "in the mirror")           /Instrumental case/

are

parts of a Connection (the 1st - the 2nd (Non_Genitive Connection/Non_Genitive_is''))



Example:

ALL useful Russian DRINKING words + Slang!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LiU97u0OqBY

2:22 min.


пить залпом
/pit' zalpom/

пить - to drink /a verb/



залп - salvo, volley /a noun/

залпом - salvo, volley /in Instrumental case/

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BF


Also one could notice that all prefixes in Russian verbs come/are/ from prepositions.


===


Instrumental case is a state of Existence of two Things (the 1st and the 2nd). It is a verb/Connection(Non_Genitive_is'' (two-valent verb)) which is left out (invisible). It is a verb/Connection which is encoded in a different way than the Verb (in the "Simple sentence") for simplicity. After all, "Simple sentence" (Name) is one defined verb (by its parts (the 1st (and the 2nd)), by exact moment (Tense), by ...) and the Speaker doesn't want too many verbs to hang around in the sentence.

Often Places and moments/stretches of Time are also in Instrumental case.
        /            as Things (SubSpaces)         /
95
"pro": Shall, Will  /alongside can, must, may, ought to ..., have to .../ 



===



To keep it simple:


Will                                                                     Shall
Used to express the future tense                          Used to express the obligation

I             will do          we   will do                          I             shall do        we   shall do
you         will do          you  will do                          you         shall do        you  shall do
he/she/it will do          they will do                          he/she/it shall do        they shall do

/one may use shall in 1st person singular and plural as/for Future tense as well/

---

John will do.

The Doer is the 1st (Main), the "Environment" is the 2nd(not Main).
/the meaning of the Future as an Intention (Freedom) of the Doer/



John shall do.

The "Environment" is the 1st (Main), the Doer is the 2nd(not Main).
/the meaning of Obligation as the Dependency of the Doer/




===


Consciousness and the "Environment" are Complementary.

96
Outside of the box / Re: Croatian toponyms
« Last post by FlatAssembler on March 18, 2021, 09:28:26 AM »
I have just made a validation of the algorithm used in Etymology Game. The results are not particularly impressive: https://flatassembler.github.io/validation_results.html
97
> I meant that on the level of morphemes раз- has to be always раз -/роз
> (never рас-/рос-). On that level it is better if affixes remain un-/change/-able
I did understand you. I just think if you want to deprive Russian a prefix it would be better to leave them the more phonetic one. Russians often pronounce раз- as рас- even before voiced consonants. I have never thought about it (I am not a professional) but quick analysis makes me think it depends on the speed of speech, emphasis, and distinction. I also believe that pupils do write рас- instead of раз- erroneously but never vice versa. Though if there is only one prefix it will not be a problem indeed and let it be раз-.
> (root is another story) and there have to be strict rules.
And by the way the roots do not have the rules. They are all taught as exceptions (and there are not so many teachers who try to explain why and just say “memorize that”).
> So, voiceless (consonant) sound after  раз- will made/change z into s (no matter one
> wants it or not).
> There are mistakes in English and Russian languages. They have to be addressed.
I believe you shall not repeat the error of another reformer – Noah Webster – who’s reforms look nonsystematic and incomplete. So you probably need to do something to без-/бес-, воз-/вос, из-/ис-, вз-/вс-, низ-/нис-, чрез-(через-)/чрес-(черес-) pairs too.
98
> It has to be раз- for all words!!! (always)
> The logic of "рас-" is very bad.
It is very hard if not impossible to pronounce an unvoiced consonant after a voiced one. You can really make them to write раз+<unvoiced the rest> but they will still pronounce it as рас-<…>.
> Phonetic writing is good but not enough. One needs to go up.
The history tells the opposite – it appeared to be pretty good for the American English to try to become some more phonetic. By the way, is Guinness localized in the US? Is it the drought or draft stout there?
99
Hi,

 * For someone Silent e (Silent (soft) vowel/syllable) may resemble Zero;

 * Apostrophe ' (1. noun, omitted vowel/syllable)

      https://www.dictionary.com/browse/apostrophe?s=t

 * Let Reduced sounds in a word be in the Even syllables

    and

    letter e be [ə], letter i be [ɪ] (, and letter u be [ʊ]);

 * For vowel sounds in Odd syllables one may take different approaches;

 *  ...

===

 * - syllable;
 '  - Silent syllable

 * * * * * ... - Syllables in odd positions (of a word)
 1    3    5
 

* * * * * ... - Syllables in even positions (of a word)
   2    4




1 syllable word ( + a Silent syllable):

*  - a is not Reduced (a is the 1st)
a

' * - a is Reduced (a is the 2nd)
  a


2 syllable word ( + a Silent syllable):

* *  - a is not Reduced (the 1st), b is Reduced (the 2nd)
a b

' * * - a is Reduced (the 2nd syllable), b is not Reduced (the 3rd syllable)
  a b

* ' * - the 2nd is Reduced (not a (the 1st) and not b (the 3rd))
a   b


3 syllable word ( + a Silent syllable):

* * * - b is Reduced
a b c

' * * * - a and c are Reduced
  a b c

' * ' * * - a and b are Reduced
  a   b c

...


===


Examples:

the [ði:]; 'the [ðə]; a [eɪ]; 'a [ə]; 'an [ən]; ...

...

===

(    x [ks]  -  xe = x' [gz]    ; there are other times when x = silent k + [ʃ]; x = silent g + [z] (, ... ?) )

g [g]   -  ge = g' [dʒ]

c [k]   -  ce = c' [tʃ]

s        -  se = s' [ʃ]

z        -  ze = z' [ʒ]

' = Silent e (soft)

/now g', c', s', z' have sense as syllables and they are counted as such (or simply just ' is counted as a vowel/syllable)/


100
Hi, Rock100,

Let's start with hi'ut'el.

The word is hotel.

I could have written hout'el but for me [əu] is easier than [ou]. So I say [əu].

ho- [o/əu] is a leveled syllable and -tel [tel] is the stressed one.

===

About

g, k/c, h  -  g' [dʒ], c' [tʃ], :
s, z          -  s' [ʃ], z' [ʒ]

and

Russian щ  -  [ʃ(t)ʃ]    =  [ʃ + almost missed t + ʃ] ~ [ʃtʃ]
                                 /ʃ +t + ʃ = ʃ + [tʃ] (ч)/
             
No magic in Russian. "t"(/"d") is often missed in English words/speech because is/are hard to pronounce (even in "my language").

don'(t), of(t)en, ...

Russian ш is [ʃ].


===


SOFT  - HARD

means

1. (relatively) front - back /for vowels/

      and

 g' /dz' [dʒ] - g   [g]
                                     /for consonants/
 c'/ts'   [tʃ]  - c/k [k]


2. (relatively) up - down /for consonants/   

 s' [ʃ] - s;

 z' [ʒ] - z;

===

Consciousness works not in absolute values but relative.

===


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakh_alphabets

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakh_alphabets#/media/File:2017_Kazakh_Latin_Alphabet.png


===



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