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21
Phonetics and Phonology / Re: IPA pronunciation and mouth/tongue shape
« Last post by Daniel on January 19, 2019, 03:11:49 PM »
This site is very nice, although it seems to be having some technical issues at the moment: https://soundsofspeech.uiowa.edu/ (there's also a mobile app I believe)
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Phonetics and Phonology / IPA pronunciation and mouth/tongue shape
« Last post by Matt Longhorn on January 19, 2019, 08:35:14 AM »
Hi all, does anyone know of any good links where I can find diagrams of the mouth / tongue shape keyed against the IPA
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Linguist's Lounge / Vegetarianism
« Last post by FlatAssembler on January 12, 2019, 08:08:53 AM »
So, what do people on this forum think about vegetarianism? I have been a vegetarian for a few years, and it being the right choice seems like a no-brainer to me mow. I've made a short web-page about it here:
http://flatassembler.000webhostapp.com/vegetarianism.html
The real question appears to be why there is so much anti-vegetarianism on the Internet (I've written a long page about it and linked to it at the bottom of the page I linked to here). Well, I think that it has to do with the fact that most of the people get familiar with Marxism before they hear the ethical arguments for vegetarianism. In short, that people become so obsessed about exploitation and oppression that they do not see exploitation and oppression where it's actually happening.
Both Marxism and the vegetarian philosophy talk about exploitation and oppression. However, they use those words rather differently. An excellent one-liner pointing to the problem of the use of the words exploitation and oppression in Marxism I've heard is this: "Here is a person who happens to have a lot of money. Be careful so that he doesn't give you some in exchange for some small service, because that's oppression and exploitation.". On the other hand, the vegetarian philosophy is saying: "The meat industry is killing countless sentient animals for no good reason, and it uses the government, including the school system, to spread dangerous myths to make it look like it's necessary. That's exploitation and oppression and it should be ended.". But I suppose many people don't see those words are used differently. I think that what's going on in most of the people's mind when they hear the ethical arguments for vegetarianism is either "Animals are being exploited and oppressed? Who cares, a much bigger problem are the textile workers oppressed and exploited in the sweatshops." or "Exploitation and oppression, with all their flaws, are necessary and they gave us all the good things we have now. We've tried to end exploitation and oppression countless times and just made things worse.".
I was just wondering what you guys think about it, I am not planning to respond too much.
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Phonetics and Phonology / Thomas Morley Pronounciation
« Last post by DonataR on January 08, 2019, 05:43:16 AM »
Hello,

I'm very fond of Thomas Morley's madrigals (from late 16th century). Some of the rhymes (I think they are supposed to be rhymes) don't work in modern English pronounciation though. So I would like to ask if someone here knows about Early Modern English (?) pronounciation and can transcribe the following text into IPA:

I goe before my darling,
Follow thou to the bowre in the close alley,
Ther wee will together,
Sweetly kisse each eyther,
And like two wantons,
Dally dally dally dally…


In this song I think that maybe "together" is rhyming with "each eyther", but I don't know how to pronounce it.
I would be glad if someone could help me with this!

Donata
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Outside of the box / Re: Anyone ever created their own language?
« Last post by panini on January 06, 2019, 11:38:36 AM »
My main recommendation for people hoping to construct a language is, get a clear understanding of what you're trying to accomplish, and perhaps what you're trying to avoid. For example, some people are enamored of "simplicity", so them invent a language with very few words, very short words and very few sounds (all trivial to pronounce), and then they can't say simple things like "my new white reindeer likes chasing your 3-legged skink". Or, it ends up being really ambiguous, like "big animal like a cow but not actually cow and I own the thing likes to walk very quickly towards small animal like flat dry frog...". Do you want it to be particularly bizarre (a popular theme in sci-fi versions of conlanging) thus challenging from a human perspective? Assuming you know a bit of Hungarian, are you hoping to avoid the phonological alternations of Hungarian, or are you hoping to enhance them?
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Outside of the box / Re: Anyone ever created their own language?
« Last post by FlatAssembler on January 06, 2019, 09:11:51 AM »
Well, I've recently created my own programming language. The compiler is written in JavaScript and C, using the Duktape framework (which is not intended to be used that way at all, but it obviously can be). That language transpiles into x86 assembly. Here are one of the first programs I've written in it:
Code: [Select]
;Advanced example: implementing the permutation algorithm.
AsmStart
    debug=0
macro pushIntToStack x
{
sub esp,4
fld dword [x]
fistp dword [esp]
}
macro pushPointerToStack x
{
sub esp,4
lea ebx,[x]
mov [esp],ebx
}
macro pushStringToStack x
{
sub esp,4
mov dword [esp],x
}
format PE console
entry start

include 'win32a.inc'

section '.text' code executable
start:
jmp enterNumber$
enterNumber db "Enter a whole number (1 - 1'000'000).",10,0
enterNumber$:
pushStringToStack enterNumber
call [printf]
pushPointerToStack original
jmp floatSign$
floatSign db "%f",0
floatSign$:
pushStringToStack floatSign
call [scanf]
jmp permutationString$
permutationString db "The permutations of its digits are:",10,0
permutationString$:
pushStringToStack permutationString
call [printf]
AsmEnd
numberOfDigits:=0
i:=0
While i<10
countDigits[i]:=0
i:=i+1
EndWhile
While original>0
numberOfDigits:= numberOfDigits + 1
lastDigit:= mod( original , 10 )
countDigits[ lastDigit ]:=countDigits( lastDigit ) + 1
original:= (original - lastDigit) / 10
EndWhile
AsmStart
if debug=1
AsmEnd
i:=0
While i<10
subscript:=4*i
AsmStart
fld dword [subscript]
fistp dword [subscript]
mov ebx,[subscript]
pushIntToStack (countDigits+ebx)
pushStringToStack integerSign
call [printf]
AsmEnd
i:=i+1
EndWhile
AsmStart
pushStringToStack newLineString
call [printf]
AsmEnd
AsmStart
end if
AsmEnd
topOfMyStack:=1
myStack[(numberOfDigits+1)]:=0
While topOfMyStack>0
currentNumberOfDigits:=myStack ( topOfMyStack * ( numberOfDigits + 1 ) )
i:=0
While i<currentNumberOfDigits
currentNumber(i):=myStack ( topOfMyStack * ( numberOfDigits + 1 ) + ( i + 1 ) )
i:=i+1
EndWhile
AsmStart
if debug=1
AsmEnd
i:=0
While i<currentNumberOfDigits
subscript:=i*4
AsmStart
fld dword [subscript]
fistp dword [subscript]
mov ebx,[subscript]
pushIntToStack (currentNumber+ebx)
pushStringToStack integerSign
call [printf]
AsmEnd
i:=i+1
EndWhile
AsmStart
pushStringToStack newLineString
call [printf]
AsmEnd
AsmStart
end if
AsmEnd
topOfMyStack:=topOfMyStack-1
If currentNumberOfDigits=numberOfDigits
i:=0
While i<numberOfDigits
subscript:=i*4
AsmStart
fld dword [subscript]
fistp dword [subscript]
mov ebx,[subscript]
pushIntToStack (currentNumber+ebx)
pushStringToStack integerSign
call [printf]
AsmEnd
i:=i+1
EndWhile
AsmStart
pushStringToStack newLineString
call [printf]
AsmEnd
Else
i:=0
While i<10
counter:=0
j:=0
While j<currentNumberOfDigits
If currentNumber(j)=i
counter:=counter+1
EndIf
j:=j+1
EndWhile
If counter<countDigits(i)
topOfMyStack:=topOfMyStack+1
myStack(topOfMyStack*(numberOfDigits+1)):=currentNumberOfDigits+1
j:=0
While j<currentNumberOfDigits
myStack(topOfMyStack*(numberOfDigits+1)+(j+1)):=currentNumber(j)
j:=j+1
EndWhile
myStack (topOfMyStack * (numberOfDigits + 1) + (j + 1) ) := i
EndIf
i:=i+1
EndWhile
EndIf
EndWhile
AsmStart
invoke system,_pause
invoke exit,0

_pause db "PAUSE",0
integerSign db "%d",0
newLineString db 10,0

section '.rdata' readable writable
original dd ?
result dd ?
lastDigit dd ?
numberOfDigits dd ?
countDigits dd 11 dup(?)
subscript dd ?
myStack dd 1000 dup(?)
topOfMyStack dd ?
counter dd ?
i dd ?
currentNumber dd 11 dup(?)
currentNumberOfDigits dd ?
j dd ?


section '.idata' data readable import
library msvcrt,'msvcrt.dll'
import msvcrt,printf,'printf',system,'system',exit,'exit',scanf,'scanf'
AsmEnd
You can download the source code of the compiler and the instructions on how to compile it here:
http://flatassembler.000webhostapp.com/Duktape.zip
I've created that language to be as easy to integrate with assembly as possible. The assembly code C compilers have to produce (trying to declare variables themselves, to manage stack themselves...) has to be almost completely rewritten if you are using a different assembly language compiler.
It's more of a toy than a useful language right now (though I think even what I've made now can help if you are forced to write some algorithms in assembly, an equivalent assembly language program would be around three times as long as the program I just posted), however, and I don't have time to continue developing it. Nevertheless, I can use that as a proof that I understand how programming languages work.  :)
27
Language Acquisition / Teaching the Subjunctive
« Last post by Matt Longhorn on January 06, 2019, 07:23:00 AM »
I have a session with a friend on Tuesday teaching him the use of the subjunctive in Koine Greek. It is only first year stuff but have been playing with the idea of showing meanings a bit more graphically, having read some cognitive linguistics articles on language acquisition.
I have attached a copy of what I am planning using (please excuse the rough and ready nature).
Would appreciate feedback from anyone on whether there may be better ways of doing this.

I have tried to show similarities between meanings, what question is being thought of by the writer sitting behind their use of the subjunctive and how it can be glossed.
28
Morphosyntax / Re: Intersective and subjective adjectives in Abels' (2014) Universal
« Last post by Daniel on January 03, 2019, 06:47:33 PM »
Hello Alex, and welcome to the forum.

We don't answer homework questions here, because the whole point of homework is for your to figure out how to get to the answer yourself, not just to know the answer.
29
Morphosyntax / Intersective and subjective adjectives in Abels' (2014) Universal
« Last post by AlexK on January 03, 2019, 04:55:18 AM »

Thank you in advance for any help

30
Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Spelling letters phonetically without using the letter
« Last post by JackLay on December 26, 2018, 03:16:07 AM »
But no, there is no obvious or clear way to spell out some letter names like "B" without using those letters. I don't see why you'd want to do that, though.

This is where i hit a wall, letters with names that start with the sound that they make. As to why i'm doing this, i don't really have a reason. It just came into my head a couple days ago and i've been obsessing over it since.

You could manipulate letters according to the rules of English spelling and spell the name of k as "kay" or "cay", likewise in Norwegian you could spell the name of the letter "kå". My point is that sounds, letters, names and spelling are different things. If I was forced to spell the name of the letter "b" without using "b", I would write it as "бe", maybe "βe" or "ᛒe" (Fuᚦark is usually considered a different alphabet), and hope that people could figure it out.

Thanks for clarification. I did mean spelling the name of the letters, but couldn't think of a way to phrase it well at the time. You helped me big time by introducing "βe", "ᛒe", etc. as i never thought to us a foreign alphabet before.
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