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22
Linguistics Links / OK
« Last post by waive15 on December 11, 2020, 10:44:40 AM »
23
Psycholinguistics / Re: The emotion of a language
« Last post by Pramod Kumar Agrawal on December 08, 2020, 06:30:19 AM »
Different nasal sounds create different emotions. Two different species can have two different vocal-cords and they can pronounce emotions differently.  It can be suggested that the difference in the vocal-cord may depend on the environmental conditions of these species, and these environmental conditions have an impact on the emotions too.
Pramod Kumar Agrawal
24
Psycholinguistics / Re: Animal interaction/communication
« Last post by Pramod Kumar Agrawal on December 08, 2020, 06:14:15 AM »
In my view, animals are psychological entities and communicate only for their biological and psychological need and purposes.
Pramod Kumar Agrawal
25
Linguist's Lounge / Re: (The) Three trifles in/of/about Russian
« Last post by waive15 on December 07, 2020, 12:06:03 PM »
Hi,



Oscar Benton, Bensonhurst Blues

Bay Parkway wonder
You're such a success
Your pretty secretary, ha
She say(-s) you are the best

Your face always smiling
Say(-s) you sure paid your dues
But I know inside
You've got the Bensonhurst blues

Those custom-made ciggies
That you offer to me pretend
And pretend to care about my family

And those pictures on your desk
All them lies that you abuse   (abuse - verb used with object (= abuse'')) you (with) lies abuse all them (people in the pictures on your desk)
                                                                                                                 1st     +    2nd of the Doer(-s) /Instrumental case(?) or missing with/
                                                                                                                 that relates to all them (?)
Do they know you suffer
From the Bensonhurst blues

Your grandmother's accent
Still embarrasses you
You're even ashamed
Of the French you once knew

You're part of the chance now
They break you making the news
But I know inside
You've got the Bensonhurst blues

But thanks for the lesson
Cause the life that I choose
Won't make me feel like living
With the Bensonhurst blues

And don't, don't try to write me
And don't bother to call
Cause I'll be in conference
Merry Christmas you all



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=si7Np5U0Y5M


"Merry Christmas you all"
26
Hi,


Part 0. Verb

- transitive   (see'', ...)    /have ... active participle and ... passive participle/
  Doer,        Active, the 1st
  Sufferer, Passive, the 2nd

- intransitive (go', ...)     /have only ... active participle/
  Doer,        Active, the 1st

             

Part 1. "Participles"

- noun                      from Verb

- adjective/Participle/ from Verb

- adverb                    from Verb



Part 2. Adjective/Participle

John read'' book.
/read as Connection of John (the 1st) and book (the 2nd); read is transitive (read'')/

John  - Doer,        Active, the 1st

Book - Sufferer, Passive, the 2nd

===

https://www.etymonline.com/word/participle#etymonline_v_7257

-

https://www.dictionary.com/browse/participle?s=t

"(Grammar)
An adjective or complement to certain auxiliaries that is regularly derived from the verb in many languages and refers to participation in the action or state of the verb; a verbal form used as an adjective. It does not specify person or number in English, but may have a subject or object, show tense, etc., as burning, in a burning candle, or devoted in his devoted friend."

===

a. Participle after be'

John read''(any tense) book.

-

John       be' (any tense) past active participle of read.

The book be' (any tense) past passive participle of read (by John).

-

John       be' (any tense) present active participle of read.

The book be' (any tense) present passive participle of read (by John).

-

John       be' (any tense) future active participle of read.

The book be' (any tense) future passive participle of read (by John).

===

b. Participle after have''

  /a small detour - again participle after be
  /
  /                      boss: Go and get me the evening paper.
  /                a worker: I will go.
  /        a good worker: I am going.
  /an excellent worker: I am gone. (go' is intransitive, it has only ... active participles. In this case gone is a past active participle - no Passive Voices on the horizon.)
  /
  /A man finishes his meal an says "I'm done". (in this case done is also a past active participle. He means "I have finished (...)." - no Passive Voices on the horizon.)
  /
  /From the Context (one level up) One guesses the type of the participle in English.
  /
  /be' and go' (and ...) are intransitive and yet they make Perfect Tenses in English with Have. This is illogical. They had to make Perfect tenses with Be.Because after Have in Perfect tenses stands past passive participle AND intransitive verbs Do Not Have past passive participle. BUT for Simplification/Standardization in English was taken The "illogical"/Formal approach (Formal past passive participles of Intransitive Verbs are used in Perfect tenses (after HAVE) and that keeps Passive Voice Clear/Simple - only with BE). In German was taken "more logical" approach which brings werden in Passive Voice (which is on the other hand illogical).
  /
  /


After HAVE one expects SOMETHING.

Past passive participle after HAVE (both for Intransitive(Formal approach) and Transitive verbs)(is an adjective which) states the NAME of the action/state(Verb). It is that SOMETHING.

And that SOMETHING is in (has) Neuter Gender.


(1.) John has an apple.

(2.) Jane has a written (by John) book.

(3.) Jane has a book written (by John).  /"And I'm not insane, my mother had me tested."/

                                                   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mr6XHJ7qcSE

(4.) Jane has [written a book (by Jane)].
(5.) Jane has [written (by Jane) a book].

(6.) Jane has been to Australia.  /be' - intransitive; been is Formal Past passive participle in neuter gender (adjective) which is
                                               /perceived as noun/name of the verb

(7.) John has gone to Spain.     /go' - intransitive;   - " -

===

In English one can sense:

* past active participle
* past passive participle

* present active participle
* absence of present passive participle

* absence of future active participle
* absence of future passive participle



   /Words from Latin like summand, addend, subtrahend,
   /multiplicand, dividend, referendum ...
   /
   /  -end
   /                             /E - A/
   /  -and
   /
   /  https://www.affixes.org/alpha/e/-end.html
   /
   /  https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page
   /
   /one for simplicity may take them as
   /present passive participles which NAME (are used as names/nouns for) things.
   /
   /    https://www.affixes.org/alpha/e/-end.html


   /-en3, also ‑n form past ... participles of strong verbs.
   /
   /    https://www.affixes.org/alpha/e/-en3.html



* noun (from a verb) "Participle"     /the "time" of nouns is (always?) "now"?/
* adverb (from a verb) "Participle"  /probably only(?) present active "Participle"/

===



"Con": Participles in English are well swept under the rug. And "(grammatical) Voice" is a collaborator/an accomplice.



27
Linguist's Lounge / Re: (The) Three trifles in/of/about Russian
« Last post by Rock100 on December 04, 2020, 08:09:27 PM »
> Abstract
> Михайлов, Н. (Mikhaylov, N.) 2012. Творительный падеж в русском языке XVIII века.
> (With a Summary in English: The Instrumental Case in Eighteenth-Century Russian.)
> Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Slavica Upsaliensia 47. 296 pp. Uppsala.
> ISBN 978-91-554-8526-9.
Hm… This one looks a kind of interesting, thank you. Though some ideas look somewhat far-fetched (at least for me), for example, the nominative/instrumental case preference for the same expressions. So even the cited “The Historical Dictionary of Russian Writers” demonstrates some inconsistency on the issue. I also believe that the total majority of official writings were professionally edited and might demonstrate a prescribed tendency (probably a short-lived one) rather than the real state of the art.
But it is a fun to think about indeed.
28
Linguist's Lounge / Re: (The) Three trifles in/of/about Russian
« Last post by waive15 on December 04, 2020, 03:22:07 AM »
Hi,

I am sorry that the link does not work. Here is a new link. I hope that it will last.

The verb is at the end of the book, at page 59.
The book is in 1868 Russian. "Grammar of old Russian - word forms" is given as a substitution. I can not give a good translation of the name.

Kolosov M. A. - Grammar of old Russian - word forms  (1868)

https://yadi.sk/i/pmR-5RatP2UlYw

===

John has a pen. John's pen is on the table.

Possessiveness - Genitive case (Recursion (Embedding) - much later abstract naming) is dear to a human. So it was named.

John has a pen. The pen has an ink. The ink has a colour. ...

But

Oneth, Twoth, Threeth, Fourth, Fifth, ... 

Next-ness (Iteration ( ...)) is so Obvious that a few gave themselves a trouble to name it in language (as 1st and 2nd = a name in Nominative or any other case AND a name in Instrumental(the 2nd in the same state/action as the 1st)).


Instrumental case in Eighteenth century's Russian

https://yadi.sk/i/61wrVHWcwE4Nmw


"Dissertation presented at Uppsala University to be publicly examined in Ihresalen, Engelska
parken, Thunbergsvägen 3L, Uppsala, Saturday, December 15, 2012 at 10:15 for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy. The examination will be conducted in English.

Abstract
Михайлов, Н. (Mikhaylov, N.) 2012. Творительный падеж в русском языке XVIII века.
(With a Summary in English: The Instrumental Case in Eighteenth-Century Russian.)
Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Slavica Upsaliensia 47. 296 pp. Uppsala.
ISBN 978-91-554-8526-9.

The aim of this dissertation is to describe the sphere of use of the Russian Instrumental case in
written sources from the eighteenth century. The research is based on approximately 11,300
instances of the use of the Instrumental and almost 2,400 constructions with other cases,
excerpted from documents of various genres and styles. The corpus includes texts written by
forty eighteenth-century authors, and contains works of poetry and drama, literary prose,
letters, memoirs and learned tracts.

Previous studies of the Instrumental case have in the main dealt with the development of
the system of its meanings in the Old Russian period, or else have described its condition in
modern times. The present work attempts to systematise its most typical uses and to trace the
changes in the function of the Instrumental that took place during the period when a national
literary language was coming into being in Russia.

The research is primarily focused on the competition between the Instrumental case and
other means of expression of particular meanings. In particular it describes (with statistical
data) the variation in case forms within the predicate, with the function of an object, and also
of the agent in passive constructions.

A detailed description is given of those meanings of the Instrumental which are known
from the earliest period and still in active use in the eighteenth century, but nowadays per-
ceived as archaic. The most important of these are the Instrumental of cause, and also various
uses of the Instrumental without a preposition to indicate time or place.
..."

The paper is in Russian. It may be seen as the wandering Russians took to pin down the Next-ness (Instrumental case).

===



Have a nice day.
29
Outside of the box / Re: levy, privy, (heavy), savy - not savvy, ...
« Last post by waive15 on December 04, 2020, 02:11:12 AM »
Hi,

Essentials of English Grammar, Otto Jespersen [PDF]

https://yadi.sk/i/V0SLjxqhLIh6tw
30
Linguistics Links / Re: Takineko's Japanese Lessons
« Last post by waive15 on December 04, 2020, 01:19:03 AM »
Hi,

Eiichi Kiyooka - Japanese in Thirty Hours [1953, PDF, ENG]

https://yadi.sk/i/aA8SgWQ0O0ITZg

I hope that this link will last.

I am sorry for the inconvenience.
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