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Language-specific analysis / Re: Homophones, Homographs and Synonyms in Spanish
« Last post by Audiendus on October 02, 2019, 06:50:05 PM »
Some suggestions:

Homographs
americana: American woman/jacket
llama: flame/llama
toro: bull/torus
población: town/population
radio: radio/radius/radium

Homophones
ay/hay
barón/varón
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Morphosyntax / Re: How to make a syntactic tree for this sentence?
« Last post by Daniel on October 02, 2019, 01:04:45 PM »
It's still much better if you can do this exercise yourself to practice rather than us giving you 'the answer'.

But here I think I can help by getting you started. The biggest challenge with drawing a tree for a sentence that large is probably fitting it on the page and at the same time not mixing up any of the structural relationships. You can probably identify any individual component by itself, but might get lost in the larger context. But this provides a good opportunity for another excise that will help: try substitution where you identify constituents (phrases) within the sentence by substituting functionally equivalent words. For example, what is the subject, and can the whole phrase be replaced with a pronoun? Do that for several complex parts of the sentence, and then draw a tree for that simplified version. That can then work as the outline for your tree of the original sentence, so try that next.
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Morphosyntax / How to make a syntactic tree for this sentence?
« Last post by łania on October 02, 2019, 12:00:00 PM »
Hi guys! I have a big problem with dividing this complex sentence into parts to build a syntactic tree. Can anyone help me? This is not a homework, this is one of questions for the final exam on my studies and these questions are published on my University website, so there's nothing wrong in asking you for help here :) The case is not actually to build a tree but to indentify the phrasal categories, however, the form of a tree is easier for me to learn and understand it. That's why I struggle to do that.

This is the sentence:

The central assumption underpinning syntactic analysis in traditional grammar is
that phrases and sentences are built up of a series of constituents, each of which
belongs to a specific grammatical category and serves a specific grammatical
function.
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Language-specific analysis / Re: Homophones, Homographs and Synonyms in Spanish
« Last post by Daniel on October 02, 2019, 08:57:39 AM »
It seems you're making this very hard by having selected European Spanish. A language like English has a lot more homophones due to the messy spelling, while Spanish has much more consistent spelling (generally a good thing) making it harder to design a study like this, and more importantly possibly meaning that speakers would have fewer cognitive effects of this type, while English speakers are known to have major cognitive effects based on organizing vocabulary based on spelling. (Actually testing Spanish like this could be a good comparison for that reason but doesn't make the experiment easier to design.) Furthermore, using Latin American Spanish or other dialects (including some in Spain, such as Andalucian), would allow you to find many more orthographic mergers with c/z=s. This is a known topic at least anecdotally for testing spelling of some, especially colloquial, words in Latin America, such as the difference between voz and vos (where that informal pronoun is used).

That said, I will let you know if I think of any homophones. Have you thought about any English borrowings or brand names? (That might introduce additional complexity for the experiment, though.)

Finally, why not take advantage of something Spanish has not found in English, specifically the use of accent marks? That is, you could compare hablo/habló, or similar pairs (maybe where the meaning is more different, not just grammatical) to study something that can only be tested in a language where that is a factor. And many Spanish speakers don't bother writing the accent marks on the internet, for example, so it might be interesting to see how they process the differences. (I want to emphasize that I think experiments not studying English are great, because there's such a research bias for English; I'm just thinking about whether something more applicable or common in Spanish could be included.)
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Language-specific analysis / Homophones, Homographs and Synonyms in Spanish
« Last post by Paidon on October 02, 2019, 08:16:43 AM »
Hello :)

I am currently participating in a research project in linguistics. In order to study the effect of polysemic words in Spanish, we tried to create a list of homographs (words written and pronounced the same way, but having different meanings), homophones (words pronounced the same way but spelled differently) and close synonyms.

Here are a few examples that we found:

Homographs
Tienda : shop/tent
Flamenco : dance/bird
Cometa : kite/comet
Vela : sail/candle
Muñeca : wrist/doll

Homophones
Hola/Ola
Honda/Onda
Pollo/Poyo

Close synonyms
Oliva/Aceituna : olive
Anillo/Sortija : ring
Pelota/Balón : ball
Pelo/Cabello : hair
Estudiante/Alumno : student

We're trying to make big enough lists in order to be able to run the study. That's where I need your help: by asking to a lot a people, I believe that we'll be able to create those lists.

Ideally, the words would match material objects or verbs (actions) ; and a word will not be taken into account if not known by the majority of the (European) Spanish speakers. Synonyms should also be of the same language level.

Anyway, don't hesitate to propose any word that crosses your mind, I will then try to take the best ones.

Thanks a lot!
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That sounds like too broad a topic to offer specific advice. Is this for a class? Could you talk to your instructor about the requirements? If you are choosing the topic for your own research, then my general advice would be to read existing research articles to get an idea of what topics interest you and hopefully find one that you can follow as a model for the kind of study you want to do.
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Good morning everybody
I need you help, i'd like to make a research paper about syntagmatics and paradigmatics relations, so I need information about how can i do that , how can I begin, and the more important question; how can I analyse the text, which type of text should I choose?
thanks ..
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Morphosyntax / 3rd declension adjectives in post-classical Greek
« Last post by Matt Longhorn on October 01, 2019, 12:48:34 AM »
Hi all, one for folks who have knowledge of post-classical Greek. I am trying to find out if there are any general rules / diachronic explanations for why some adjectives take a 3rd declension masculine/feminine and also a third declension neuter form. an example would be akrates
I found a general rule in the Brill Encyclopaedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics (which was eye wateringly expensive to buy) for why some adjectives only take a 2-2 form. Namely that they tend to be compound adjectives rather than simple e.g. apistos taking a 2-2 pattern and pistos taking a 2-1-2 pattern.

I am helping a small group of people through first year Greek at the moment and trying to find ways to make things more simple. Also, it would be quite interesting for me to know anyway
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Sociolinguistics / Re: Fairclough's Language and Power
« Last post by Daniel on September 28, 2019, 05:35:06 AM »
"Practice" in this sense just means "(traditional/conventional) behavior".

Beyond that, this sounds like a homework question, which we won't answer here. You should be able to do this yourself.
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Sociolinguistics / Fairclough's Language and Power
« Last post by Comet on September 28, 2019, 03:47:12 AM »
Can somebody please help with the interpretation of this paragraph from Fairclough's book, Language and Power? Can you please give examples to what he means by "types of practice"?

"Think of your own current or former place of work or study in terms of
its social practices, as a social order and an order of discourse. List
some of the major types of practice, and try to work out how they are
demarcated from each other - maybe in terms of the sorts of situation,
and participant, they are associated with. To what extent are they
discoursal and to what extent are they non-discoursal?"

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