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English / Re: Linguistics exam
« Last post by Daniel on February 14, 2019, 04:47:38 PM »
Exams are meant to test your knowledge. You should be prepared for it in some way. It isn't clear what this is for, but if you are not prepared, then you should look at options to get prepared: take a class, read a book, etc.

This question is not appropriate here, or really anywhere on the internet or otherwise outside of your institution/program.

If you had a specific question about one of the ideas on the test, then we could discuss that, but even then actually discussing test content is generally not a good idea, and against the rules here.

Are you taking a class? Go talk to the instructor. Review your notes or the textbook.

--

I have also removed the images from the exam you posted, because that is inappropriate: posting exams and/or answers for exams online can too easily lead to cheating, regardless of whether this is allowed in your particular case (e.g., if this is a practice exam, but that is not clear from what you wrote).
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English / Linguistics exam
« Last post by Gricom on February 14, 2019, 05:26:00 AM »
Hi everyone,
I will need to retake the exam and I have no idea how to deal with the exam. I known that the retake exam will be different but this is not the case. I have notes from all lessons and I have read a few books, but sill I have no idea how to deal with it, can anyone help me with this? If this thread is in the wrong place please move it to the right one

[Attached images of exam removed by moderator.]
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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by Isaac Newton on February 12, 2019, 09:30:07 PM »
By the way here is my reading of Psalm 114 in the Yemeni pronunciation :

(A) Bet without dagesh voiced as a "v"
https://archive.org/details/NewRecording62_201902

(B) Bet without dagesh voiced as a "b"
https://archive.org/details/NewRecording64_201902

Which reading of bet without dagesh above sounds more like that of the native Yemeni reader we are inspecting ?
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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by Isaac Newton on February 12, 2019, 02:10:50 AM »
I hear [ʕavɪðɛ:] and [jɛvɔ:r] ("v" could be [β]); the file "kevinair" is too far from norms, and nothing sounds like [ v ] or [ b ] (check that you don't have the wrong word). Normally, when you look at the spectrogram, there would be a very rapid and "straight-line" reduction in amplitude for a voiced stop segment, which is lacking here. However, that's based on ordinary speech under clean recording conditions. Still, my eyes and ears say "v" not "b". IMO the evidence is not conclusive, and this is a classic case where you you can't say for sure. Even though it is either [ v ] or [ b ] (Aristotle's first law), you don't have sufficient reason to claim which one it is.

Incidentally, the Wiki article on Yemeni Hebrew indicates that bet with and without dagesh is neutralized in some dialect, naming Sharab.

Thanks for your thoughts Panini, much appreciated.
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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by panini on February 11, 2019, 09:26:42 AM »
I hear [ʕavɪðɛ:] and [jɛvɔ:r] ("v" could be [β]); the file "kevinair" is too far from norms, and nothing sounds like [ v ] or [ b ] (check that you don't have the wrong word). Normally, when you look at the spectrogram, there would be a very rapid and "straight-line" reduction in amplitude for a voiced stop segment, which is lacking here. However, that's based on ordinary speech under clean recording conditions. Still, my eyes and ears say "v" not "b". IMO the evidence is not conclusive, and this is a classic case where you you can't say for sure. Even though it is either [ v ] or [ b ] (Aristotle's first law), you don't have sufficient reason to claim which one it is.

Incidentally, the Wiki article on Yemeni Hebrew indicates that bet with and without dagesh is neutralized in some dialect, naming Sharab.

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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by Isaac Newton on February 10, 2019, 11:13:17 AM »
The slowed-down utterances are so mutilated that it's not possible to make a decent judgment of pronunciation. If you can post the unmodified words, maybe. The music will be a major distraction – if you can find a speaker who can just read the text, that would be preferable.


Here’s the word גְּ֝בָע֗וֹת (hills) not slowed down:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1vg7hYubYv5ETROw6H770dPRHIzMI_D-v/view

Do you hear “JeBor...” or “JeVor..” ?

——-

Here’s the word עַבְדֵ֣י (servant) at normal speed:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1k3gxkh4x8pMY8MyHIl34P7efiQIRIWna/view

Do you hear “ABeday” or “AVeday” ?

Here’s the word כבני־/ צאן (like Sheep) at normal speed:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DHcO-LMRTPua8Ywy7BzUoXYVEIQ7mb9e/view

“KeBernay” or “KeVernay”?
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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by panini on February 10, 2019, 01:54:47 PM »
The slowed-down utterances are so mutilated that it's not possible to make a decent judgment of pronunciation. If you can post the unmodified words, maybe. The music will be a major distraction – if you can find a speaker who can just read the text, that would be preferable.
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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by Isaac Newton on February 09, 2019, 02:08:08 PM »
Here's the Psalm 114 reading in the Yemeni tradition , by the way.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAFI60Sn0ug
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Phonetics and Phonology / Do you hear /b/ or /v/ ?
« Last post by Isaac Newton on February 09, 2019, 01:43:48 PM »
In Hebrew the letter /bet/ either has a "dagesh" (dot) in it's center like this בּ‬ , or it does not, like this ב‬. European Jews have traditionally pronounced bet with dagesh ( בּ) with the "hard" sound, or  "b" sound /bet/. So for example בֵּית‬ for house (as in Bethlehem,  בֵּית לֶחֶם ). The bet without dagesh on the other hand, when it occurs in a word, is pronounced by  European Jews with the "soft" sound, or "v" sound.

Jews who have been living in Arabic speaking countries for centuries however do not distinguish between how they pronounce /bet/ with or without dagesh. In other words, it  is always pronounced with a "hard" sound or a "b" sound by them. These Jews do not seem to have the "v" sound in their vocabulary.

Which brings me to the  "hearing test" of sorts for those reading this post and wishing to participate. This test  is geared  for everyone. In fact  those who don't even read Hebrew may have an advantage, IMHO  . Following is an audio clip of all of the  Biblical Hebrew words (slowed down ) with /b/ without dagesh in them, as spoken by a Yemeni Jew from his reading of Psalm 114  :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ilDKMjlkrM3o0Yl3KmStLleT62H8MvWb/view


(Time in ss:ms)
14:1: יַ֝עֲקֹ֗ב  at time 00:00 (Yagerb)
14:3:יִסֹּ֥ב at time 06:65 (Yiserb)
14:4:גְּ֝בָע֗וֹת  at time 12:06 (Jerboert)
14:4: כִּבְנֵי־ at time 17:47 (Kibernay)
14:5: תִּסֹּ֥ב at time 22:96 (Tiserb)
14:6: גְּ֝בָע֗וֹת at time 26:88 (Jerboert)
14:6:  כִּבְנֵי־ at time 32:11(Kibernay)
14:7: יַ֝עֲקֹ֗ב at time 35:92(Yagerb)

It is clear to me that all of the /bet/ sounds made by the Yemeni above are with a /b/ sound and NOT / NEVER with a /v/ sound. This was clear to me even before the audio slow down.  Yet there is someone who I am having a discussion with who insists that he is hearing the /v/ sound for the letter bet in above Yemeni reader.  So I would like readers to give their opinion as to whether they are hearing the "b" sound or a "v" sound in above. If all of above is too much, just focus your attention on the word גְּ֝בָע֗וֹת (Jerboert)  at 12:06 and 26:88. Here the bet in the middle of the word is easiest to hear. Everyone is entitled to their own opinion ofcourse.

----------------
https://pronuncian.com/pronounce-b-sound/
https://pronuncian.com/pronounce-v-sound/

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Historical Linguistics / Re: Romance languages not descended from Latin.
« Last post by Daniel on February 05, 2019, 08:46:52 PM »
Quote
The argument that Romance languages cannot be derived from Latin because they have a different typology does not hold much water. The history of many languages shows a drift from, say, synthetic to analytic.
If true, the argument would mean that languages can't change, which is, obviously, nonsense, as is the rest of the 'theory'.
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