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Morphosyntax / predicative vs adverbial
« Last post by cavertronix on Today at 02:46:20 AM »
Is there any test to determine if an element clause functions as a predicative or as an adverbial?
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Morphosyntax / Re: relative vs complement clause
« Last post by Daniel on June 27, 2017, 08:44:59 PM »
Meaning: relative clauses are like adjectives, and complement clauses are like direct objects.
Distribution: relative clauses modify nouns, complement clauses are complements of verbs.
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Morphosyntax / relative vs complement clause
« Last post by cavertronix on June 27, 2017, 04:34:45 PM »
Is there any test to differentiate between relative clause and complement clause?
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Morphosyntax / Re: Linguistics
« Last post by Daniel on June 27, 2017, 03:16:55 PM »
As I suggested for your other question, a study group would be a good option. (Or maybe your professor would be more approachable during office hours rather than during the lecture?)

Your textbook probably has examples that will be most immediately helpful for you. You can look up examples online (Wikipedia probably has some, as well as various other resources). The term you're looking for is "constituency" and "constituency tests". That's all you need to know. But it really does vary for different classes/textbooks so you might do it "wrong" by doing it a different way. I know that can happen because I've seen my students do it when I've taught them this.

Basically movement and substitution tests (see examples elsewhere) are designed to minimally change the sentence but show flexibility of one component (constituent). Another option is coordination, saying "I like pizza" > "I like pizza and pasta". If you can coordinate it, it is usually a constituent. (That test is easy, but once in a while it gives false-positives, for non-constituents that happen to allow coordination like "John likes pizza, and Mary pasta." So be careful with it.)

Personally my favorite constituency test, though  not one you should be using as a main reason on your homework or on an exam, but one that might make it a little more intuitive, is the "book title test"-- could a book possibly be called that? If so, it's a constituent. (Someone told me that someone had looked at the titles in the Library of Congress and found something like only 3 titles that aren't constituents, odd names like "I Have The".) So start with that to get an idea about it, then see if you can show the same results with the other tests (and verify you were correct).

Constituency tests are not particular difficult, but they do take some trial and error to understand, so start with that. Keep applying them until it starts to make sense, comparing examples in your textbook to your results.
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Morphosyntax / Re: Linguistics
« Last post by cavertronix on June 27, 2017, 01:15:54 PM »
I mean ive been told about movement and substitution tests but I dont know how to use them, btw Im asking for help here because my professor is very mean she just laughs at me every time I raise a question.
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Morphosyntax / Re: Linguistics
« Last post by Daniel on June 27, 2017, 01:13:25 PM »
In theoretical syntax (not common usage) every word can be considered a phrase, as well as the sentence itself. Each group of words that is hierarchically connected (grouped together structurally) is also a phrase.

Phrases correspond to nodes in a syntax tree, and they are more technically called constituents.

Another way of looking at it is that (almost) all words are heads of a phrase, and thus (almost) all words have phrases: nouns are heads of noun phrases, verbs of verb phrases, etc. And because phrases can be embedded in other phrases, you may have a noun phrase with a head noun but also containing an adjective phrase, for example.

So in short, there are many phrases within a sentence, and to find out which ones you'll have to analyze it structurally. Many syntax classes teach this by asking you to draw a tree for the sentence.

However, and this is very important!, different classes do these things differently (for a variety of reasons), and asking for help online won't necessarily get you the same/right answer for class. For example, I am guessing you use syntax trees, but I'm not sure. Your book or instructor would know though!
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Morphosyntax / Linguistics
« Last post by cavertronix on June 27, 2017, 10:52:04 AM »
How do I know if I have a phrase within a sentence?
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Morphosyntax / Re: HELP with some morphosyntax exercises PLEASE
« Last post by Daniel on June 27, 2017, 07:49:09 AM »
We will not do your homework for you. If you have a specific question (not 'what is the answer?') we might answer that (if it isn't doing your homework for you), or if you have general background questions you can ask those too. If you are struggling with the homework in particular I would suggest your instructor's office hours or forming a study group (to study and discuss course content, possibly the homework if that is permitted, but not to share answers!).
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Morphosyntax / HELP with some morphosyntax exercises PLEASE
« Last post by cavertronix on June 27, 2017, 06:29:43 AM »
[full copy-and-paste assignment removed by moderator; posting assignments online like that just makes it harder for instructors and means less genuine practice for students!]
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As for the rest, the term "mind reading" has been used to describe the acts of communication studied in Pragmatics, and especially how we interpret implicatures in the speech of others.
I guess it's a very vast field of research.

Much more important than the label is the description for that label.
Right but it's always convenient to put a name on the concepts we use.
It's just waiting for me to give it a name. ;)

Well, Daniel, thanks for your kind help. I'll certainly come back with more questions. :)

Regards
Nick
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