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Outside of the box / Re: Croatian toponyms
« Last post by FlatAssembler on Today at 05:56:51 AM »
I will continue writing, since there doesn't appear to be much opposition yet. So, I think I also know where does the name of the mountain Krndija come from. There are several mainstream theories. One is that it's related to the Greek word χορδή, string, in the sense "border between two territories". The other is that it comes from the Croatian word "krčiti", meaning "to cut wood". My theory is that it comes from PIE *(s)ker-nt, in the sense "steep". I also have a temptation to think that the nominative singular actually ended in -i in Illyrian. The suffix -i- is seen as well in, for instance, Serapia (unidentified stream in ancient Slavonia, its name, of course, comes from PIE *ser-h2ep, "flowing water"), Colapis, and possibly also in Andautonia.
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Semantics and Pragmatics / Re: A question about the name of a linguistic competence
« Last post by lp on August 14, 2017, 04:16:37 PM »
hehe, FlatAssembler, I have been that student as a 15 year old. The fact that they wrote to the letter 'that he was there' to your command after the commanding word 'Write', brings me back to memories of being completely spaced out from context, in a similar situation, and snapping back to a command (such as the imperative 'Write') and right then following through just as told to pretend I was on board. Nothing to do with Theory of Mind, or empathy, or understanding each other's knowledge and its limitations. (In my case at least...)

I think here the context is quite different, in which a neighbour encounter requires one to focus on certain coordinates of the particular context that both individuals share, yet adding or being given the addition of new information to what was there. It is an encounter, so it is short in time and sudden, maybe unexpected, often one to one; all this requires a lot of attention (that a long and tedious homework situation, sorry to put it this way, does not, quite). It actually requires a lot of mental effort we take for granted.

They say a social cognition is the most demanding, loads memory in multiple dimensional ways, and anthropologically speaking is considered one of the pillars of language itself...

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Phonetics and Phonology / Re: Constructed Root-Based Language
« Last post by FlatAssembler on August 14, 2017, 10:40:29 AM »
My advice would be to limit the syllable structure to consonant-vowel. That way your language will sound similar to, for example, Hawaiian.
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Feedback, Help and Forum Policy / Re: A question about this forum's statistics
« Last post by FlatAssembler on August 14, 2017, 09:52:31 AM »
Kind of weird that you've had a huge thread discussing some obviously wrong ideas about the language of Old Europe, yet nobody here wants to discuss my controversial statements about the Illyrian languages.
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A lot of people wouldn't say such things (as if they didn't have a theory of mind), yet they write such stuff. Once a 15-year-old student asked me to help me with his homework. I told him: "Write that he was there." I expected him to write: "Mark was in the house." However, he wrote: "That he was there." I asked him: "What's your native language?" And he was obviously confused why I asked him that.
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Semantics and Pragmatics / Re: A question about the name of a linguistic competence
« Last post by lp on August 13, 2017, 02:49:43 AM »
Hi Nick,

This immaturity of Theory of Mind you talk about is indeed attributed to the Autistic Spectrum. Which again, it is a spectrum and as such quite varied and complex. There's a lot of people on the AS that you would never know they are on the AS, especially women.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sally–Anne_test

the test above measures social cognitive ability -- hope that helps.
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Outside of the box / Croatian toponyms
« Last post by FlatAssembler on August 12, 2017, 08:26:47 AM »
I am trying to help the Croatian historians by interpreting the toponyms. Many toponyms appear to be easily explainable by PIE. Which is to be expected, IE languages have been spoken here ever since mid 3rd millennium BCE (Vucedol culture). There a few astounding examples. The ancient name for the river Kupa is Colapis, and that's obviously *kwol+*h2ep (water with meanders). The ancient name for Zagreb is Andautonia, and that can quite easily be h2en+dheh2+o(n)t+on(=om), so that it means "near that which flows". However, the mainstream Croatian toponymy quite often doesn't appear to have looked into PIE. Issa, the ancient name for the island Vis, is widely stated to have an unknown, perhaps Pre-Indo-European, etymology. However, it can easily be derived from *yos+*eh2, in the sense "where a lot of springs are". There were spas there in the Roman times. And it appears that all the ancient names for the places in Croatia where the Roman spas were share the same root. Daruvar was called Balissa (I believe Bal means bright, from *bhel) and Varazdin was called Iasa. There are multiple rivers and streams whose names appear to be derived from *h3rews. On Risnjak, the mountain, there is a stream with the same name. Many people say that the stream was named after the mountain, although it could easily be the other way around. Also, the ancient name for the river Rasa is Arsia, and, in Slavonia, there is a stream called Ervenica. Cibalae, the ancient name for Vinkovci, could easily be from *kjey+*bel (strong house), and it seems to me that nobody suggested it. The IE word for valley, *h1eyn, also appears in multiple toponyms. Incerum, the ancient name for Pozega, is often said to have an unknown etymology. However, it can easily be *h1eyn+*kjer, so that it means "the heart of the valley". The ancient name for Donji Miholjac is Mariniana. It could be from Marinus, a common roman name, but it's more likely a Latin folk-etymology of *mory+*h1eyn, "marshy valley", which is what Donji Miholjac actually is. The mountain Papuk is said to be named after the Papuk stream, but the stream is said to be of unknown etymology. I believe it is actually from *bhebhogj (repetitive participle of *bhogj, "that which flows and flows"). The mount Psunj is also said to be of unknown etymology, even though its ancient name, Pisunus, is very similar to the PIE word for resin, *pisnu, and Psunj has a lot of softwood. The river Sutla is also said to be of of unknown etymology, although it can very easily be *suh1nt, participle of *sewh1, so that it means "that which waters the ground". Pazin is also said to be of unknown etymology, even though it's sensical as *ph2senti (pasture). The same goes for Aenona, the ancient name for Nin, it's said to be of unknown etymology, although it can be from*h2ekj+*mon (where a lot of stones are). There are many toponyms which are more sensibly explainable using PIE than using Croatian. Mainstream etymology connects the river Vuka with the Croatian word "vuk", for "wolf". However, it's more likely from zero grade of *welk (a PIE onomatopoeia for "to flow", syllabic l often vocalizes to u in Croatian even in today's loanwords), isn't it? Baranja is usually derived from "baran", a spurious Croatian word for lamb, but isn't it more sensical to derive it from the PIE word for marshland, *beh3r? The ancient name for Baranja was Valeriana. It's usually derived from the name Valerius, but isn't it more likely that it comes from *wel+*h1er (wet valley)? The river Orljava is said to be derived from Croatian word for echo, "oriti", but isn't it more sensical to derive it from *h1or (to flow)? There are some villages whose names mainstream etymology derives from "daleko" (far away), like Dalj and Daljok. Isn't it more sensibly derived from *dhel, in the sense "milkmen"? The neme of the city Osijek is said to come from the Croatian word for tide, "oseka", but couldn't just as easily be *h1es+*seg (healthy, fertile field)? Some historical sources also spell "Osijek" as "Esseg". Tarda can be explained similarly as coming from *ters (dry land).
Though, there are some place names that would appear fanciful in PIE. The ancient name for Valpovo is Iovalum, which would mean "magical beer" (*yow+*h2elut). Or maybe "magical herb" (*yow+h2elom). Even if it comes from *wel (valley), the prefix Io- is still unexplained. There was quite a demonstrable word there, something like *ker, meaning "to flow", occurring in many streams and rivers (Krapina, Karasica, Krka, Korana, Krndija [the stream]…), without an obvious IE root. Or the suffix *-la in the river names like Orljava and Sutla. There are some toponyms which multiple languages could give a sensical explanation for, for instance, Pannonia (both Latin "pannis" and PIE *pen appear as sensical origins). I've tried to reconstruct some grammar of the ancient language of Slavonia based on the toponyms. Obviously, it was a centum language. I believe it had an ablaut, but not with the vowels e and o, but with a and u. For example, Mursa (the ancient name for Osijek) and Marsonia (the ancient name for Slavonski Brod) obviously share the same root (probably *mreys), and Papuk would then be a grammatical repetitive of *bhogj. Because of the epenthetic vowels (Ervenica), I'd suggest that the accent was on the first syllable (as in Ancient Greek "aster", "oros" or "ennea"). Do you think I am doing it right?
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People on this forum don't care much about controversial things in astronomy, you know. Nevertheless, you may still be able to help us. Proto-Indo-European word for "moon" literally means "what you measure with". How did they measure time using the moon? Also, Proto-Germanic used the same word for "time" and "tide". Is it possible to measure time using the tides? Also, what do you think, how likely it is that old civilisations named the same constelations we name, and not some other arbitrary groups of stars?
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Sitting at the center of the Milky Way galaxy lies a supermassive black hole named Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), possessing the mass of about 4 million suns. And the primary function of Sgr A* is to be an eternal suck hole for any and all matter that manages to unwittingly find its way into the black hole’s vicinity, new data illustrates. The supermassive black hole has inadvertently become a testing ground for Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
 
Astronomers using the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), among other instruments, just completed an analysis of a trove of new data regarding Sgr A*, which demonstrates gravitational effects predicted by Einstein. The new findings, published in The Astrophysical Journal, further validate the theory of relativity through the orbit of the stars circling around Sgr A*.
 
“The Galactic Center really is the best laboratory to study the motion of stars in a relativistic environment,” said Marzieh Parsa, an astronomer at the University of Cologne in Germany and lead author of the new paper, in a press release. “I was amazed how well we could apply the methods we developed with simulated stars to the high-precision data for the innermost high-velocity stars close to the supermassive black hole.”
 
The research team, hailing from Germany and the Czech Republic, used VLT observations from the last 20 years to compare star orbit predictions made through Newtonian gravity techniques, with predictions made through general relativity. What they found was that a star known as S2 exhibited movements consistently predicted by general relativity.
 
 
The star S2 will make a close pass around the black hole in 2018 when it will be used as a unique probe of the strong gravity and act as a test of Einstein's general theory of relativity.
 
Why is this so big? Well, it would be the first time a measurement of effects defined by general relativity were observed in stars orbiting a supermassive black hole.
 
The VLT’s incredible strength, of course, made these measurements possible. It’s unclear how else S2’s movements would have been so accurately watched.
 
[spam links removed]
 
Overall, the study does not provide any groundbreaking news, but it’s further validation — about a year-and-a-half after gravitational waves were finally detected — that Einstein managed to articulate a major framework for how the universe works a century before physicists really had the tools to confirm he was right.
 
That doesn’t mean astrophysicists are finally finished. These new results may just be a soft introduction to much more invigorating data to be collected by GRAVITY, a new instrument helmed by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany. That instrument may be able to track the passage of S2 along Sgr A* in 2018 and unveil an even more tantalizing trove of data relevant to general relativity’s and modern physics’ biggest questions.
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Linguist's Lounge / Re: Favourite etymologies
« Last post by FlatAssembler on August 12, 2017, 02:17:49 AM »
I don't think such things are interesting to laymen, but OK.
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