Linguist Forum

General Linguistics => Linguist's Lounge => Outside of the box => Topic started by: waive15 on November 09, 2020, 04:39:39 AM

Title: levy, privy, (heavy), savy - not savvy, ...
Post by: waive15 on November 09, 2020, 04:39:39 AM
* Space.

   * Space "has" Logic (Rules).

   * Space may have (sub)Spaces.
      * (upper)Space is Connection_without_order(Set) (or NonGenitive_Connection) for/to its (sub)Spaces.
      * Logic(Rules) of (sub)Space doesn't(don't) contradict Logic(Rules) of (upper)Space.

Written English(language) is Space.

"Language is the dress of thought; every time you talk your mind is on parade."
Samuel Johnson

/in another words/
Written (English) language matches (English) thought.
/at "a certain point of time"/

 * Written (English) Word depends on its origin.

 * Written (English) Word is Elegant (in (an) English way/Logic).
    /dictionary com - elegant/



1st  syllable: lev-
2nd syllable: -y



1st  syllable: priv-
2nd syllable: -y



1st  syllable: heav-
2nd syllable: -y


savy (not savvy)

1st  syllable: sav-
2nd syllable: -y

/dictionary com - levy/privy/heavy/savvy - press on SHOW IPA (to see syllables)/
/etymonline com - origin/

-vv- is as "ugly" as -ii- (in English). Written(English) words don't end in -i or -u (except for thou and you) nor have -ii- or -vv- within/inside.
/lie - liing   -   lie - lying; .../


* Written (English) Word does not indicate Stress.

   The farm was used to produce produce.
   The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.
   Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present.
   The insurance was invalid for the invalid.


* Written (English) Word does not indicate (in general) Open/Close Syllable.
   /although Open and Closed syllable is well defined, Long/Short vowel has different (practical) meaning on the "Island(-s)" and on the "Continent".
  /for example: stop - stopping. -pp- 
                                                     on the "Island(-s)"  - 1st  -p- is pronounced
                                                     on the "Continent"  - 2nd -p- is pronounced

* ...


affixes org

etymonline com



Rene Magritte "Prohibited Reproduction... Portrait of Edward James" 1937

Gödel, Escher, Bach /a book by Douglas Hofstadter/

Some expect Portrait of Edward James (recursion/embedding in a "somewhat circular" way).
/well, ... if one looks closely .../


Title: Re: levy, privy, (heavy), savy - not savvy, ...
Post by: waive15 on November 30, 2020, 10:05:06 AM


6.5 2 . The simple vowel u was used for the short vowel as in up, us, nut, full (3.7), etc.,
and for the diphthong [iu] or [ju·], frequent in French words like duke, use, due, virtue,
but also found in native words, e.g. Tuesday, hue, Stuart (the same word as steward).
But at a time when angular writing was fashionable, it became usual to avoid the letter
u in close proximity with the letters n, m, and another u (v, w), where it was liable to
cause ambiguity (five strokes might be interpreted imi, inu, mu, um, uni, uui, especially at
a time when no dot was written over i)
; hence the use of o which has been retained in a
great many words: monk, money, honey, come, won, wonder, cover (written couer before
v and u were distinguished), love, etc.
A merely orthographic distinction is made between son and sun, some and sum.
6.6 1. In ME. vowels were frequently doubled to show length, and many of these
spellings have been preserved, e.g. see, deer, too, brood, though the sounds have been changed so that they no more correspond to the short vowels.

6.6 2 . But neither a nor u were doubled in that way; and instead of writing ii it became
usual to write y.
This letter, which in Old English served to denote the rounded vowel
corresponding to (=Fr. u in bu, German ü in über), has become a mere variant of i
used preferably at the end of words, while i is nsed in the beginning and interior of
words; hence such alternations as cry, cries, cried; happy, happier, happiest, happiness;
body, bodiless, bodily, etc. But y is kept before such endings as are felt more or less as
independent elements, e.g. citywards, ladyship, twentyfold, juryman. After another vowel
y is generally kept, e.g. plays, played, boys; cf., however, laid, paid, said (but lays, pays,
says: too much consistency must not be expected).
In some cases homophones are kept apart in the spelling: die (with dies, but dying,
because ii is avoided)—dye, flys, “light carriages,” but otherwise ƒlies (sb. and vb.).
Further, y is written in many originally Greek words: system, nymph, etc.
Before a vowel, y is used as non-syllabic , i.e. [j], e.g. yard, yellow, yield, yole, yule,
6.7. Doubling of consonants has come to be extensively used to denote shortness of
the preceding vowel, especially before a weak syllable, e.g. in hotter, hottest from hot,
sobbing from sob. Instead of doubling k, ch and g
the combinations ck, tch and
dg(e) are written, e.g. trafficking from traffic, etch, edge
On account of the phonetic development, however, a double consonant is now written
after some long vowels, e.g. in roll, all, staff, glass, which had formerly short vowels.
6.8. Though since the introduction of printing a great many minor changes have taken
place without any great consistency, such as the leaving out of numerous mute e’s, only
one important orthographic change must be recorded, namely, the regulating of i and j, u
and v, so that now i and u are used for the vowels, j and v for the consonant sounds,
while, for instance, the old editions of Shakespeare print ioy, vs, υpon, fiue, fauour=joy,
us, upon, five, favour. The old use of u for the consonant explains the name of w: double


p. 44, Essentials of English Grammar, Otto Jespersen


Before the 1700s, the pointed form v was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form u was used elsewhere, regardless of sound. So whereas valor and excuse appeared as in modern printing, have and upon were printed haue and vpon. Eventually, in the 1700s, to differentiate between the consonant and vowel sounds, the v form was used to represent the consonant, and u the vowel sound. v then preceded u in the alphabet, but the order has since reversed."

English, Etymology 1


In Middle English, -u- and -v- were used interchangeably, though with a preference for v- as the initial letter (vnder, vain, etc.) and -u- elsewhere (full, euer, etc.). The distinction into consonant and vowel identities was established in English by 1630, under influence of continental printers, but into 19c. some dictionaries and other catalogues continued to list -u- and -v- words as a single series.


Have a nice day.